第十一讲 - 公猪站和精液管理 问题解答
有限公司冠名赞助的第十一次网课 - 公猪站和精液管理一讲， 收到线上很多问题， 这里给大家提供解答，仅供参考。答案部分为英文原文， 也给大家提供一个学习语言的机会。
Someboars are more prone to agglutination than others. However, if there areseveral boars with agglutinated semen then it’s important to check forbacterial contamination in the semen doses. Ask a laboratory to culture sampleson d 1 and then again d 4 to identify the presence and species of bacteriapresent. Also test water and extender samples routinely.
Ageis not as important as index or semen quality. As long as the index meets yourthreshold and semen quality is good you can continue to use the boar.
Yes.Fluctuations of 2C (or more) can damage sperm cell structure and function.
This is dependent on your farm goals and what you want to achieve. Take intoconsideration: space and labor to collect boars versus distance and frequencyof receiving semen from a stud; technical equipment needed to evaluate semen;genetic progress of using boars versus replacement rates at a boar stud, etc.
It depends on how much value is placed on genetic indexand progress. Studs typically turn boars more quickly than what sow farms areable to achieve. Please see additional comments above.
Itdepends on the type of smell and if there is color to the semen. If it’s brown,that could indicate an infection (Vesiculitis). Some boars recover with restwhile others may need antibiotic treatment. Additional information would beneeded to make a recommendation.
Yes.We want to avoid diets with DDGs and wheat midds and include at least 5% fiber.Vitamins and minerals are crucial to semen production, such as Ca++,Phosphorus, Selenium and Zinc.
There’sbeen a lot of research on using pheromone sprays on sows to induce estrus withmixed or inconclusive results. The reason for this is because it takes acombination of stimuli – physical, visual and olfactory – for the sow torespond. I’m not aware of a benefit of directly applying semen to their nose.
Ifthe boars had good semen previously, check the consumables (i.e. gloves) thatare used to collect and process semen to ensure there’s not an issue withtoxicity. Also, check that the extender is mixed appropriately by checking theosmolality.
Data suggests an inconsistent and variable response tothe addition of oxytocin.
For most terminal boars, training can start when theyenter isolation, around 7 months of age.
When training a new group, have an older boar mount the dummy first so thedummy has the scent of that boar. Also pour the semen from that boar on thedummy prior to working with the younger boars. On the first day of training,consider using PGF2 alpha to increase libido. On the second day of train try toget the boars to mount the dummy without using PGF2 alpha.
There’sa good paper that reviews this by D. Maes. We primarily worry about PRRS. DailyPRRS PCR testing is done on 25% of the boars in stud every collection day andconfirmed negative prior to the sow farms using the semen.
Heat stress starts to occur around 82°F or 27.8°C but the level of humidity also impact semen quality.
Ifmotility has drastically declined, the first step is to check and see if thereis any bacteria in the doses. Some bacteria species, like Serratia Marcescens, doesn’t show up until d 3 or 4 when it doublesevery 12 hours. After d 3 or 4, you’ll see a decrease in motility and increasein agglutination.
It sounds like one item that hasn’t been evaluated is bacteria. Have a labculture doses for bacteria and identify what species are present. There aremany types of spermicidal bacteria but I’d specifically see if SerratiaMarcescens is present. That would explain part of the storage issue. Not allboars or pools will be equally affected – which may explain why some semen isokay at longer storage periods.
Thisis based on personal preference at the sow farm and efficiency at the studs.Individual tubes or bags help with consistent sperm per dose. Using a bulk bagis more efficient because it can hold ~35+ doses but if not handledappropriately not all doses will contain the same number of sperm.
It’s much quicker and it depends on the protocol being used. Typciallyit’s thawed in 20 seconds.
I’mnot quite sure what is meant by impurities. For boars with low ejaculate concentration, take a look at diet, feedintake, water intake and collection frequency.
Do asmuch as possible to providing a cooling mechanism – evaporative cooling system,testicle drippers, etc.
If semen is shipped via a commercial shipper, ensure semen in packed indouble Styrofoam coolers with frozen packs in between the cooler (not next tothe semen) when the weather is hot. High/low thermometers or data loggers canbe place in the coolers but those should not come back to the stud forbiosecurity reasons. For semen that is driven by a courier in a car, loggerscan be used in the coolers and then the courier can download the data onto atablet for uploading to a central data location.
We typically don’t measure density. Target sperm per dose for frozen instudies is around 2.5 to 3 billion motile. Fresh ranges from 1.5 to 3 billionsperm per dose, or 30 to 40 mil/mL.
Have collection technicians watch videos with the steps on automaticcollection. Try to train young boars on the automatic system as they come intothe stud. Older boars will be harder to train.
It depends on the cause of the inflammation. That should be determinedfirst. Is it related to an injury (caught in back gating or slates) or is itrelated to an infection?
Not that I’m aware of – at leastnot in the upper 80s to 90F.
What are the criteria for culling boars? Age isn’t a driving factor.Criteria include index, semen quality, structure, untrainable (to mount thedummy).
Thiscould be a nutritional deficiency or related to the environment. If barn floorsare constantly being washed or urine isn’t draining then the feet will staywet, which can cause cracking.
Yes.Testicles that are further away from the body will do a better job of coolingand maintaining a temperature conducive to sperm quality.
Theydo not need contact with sows regularly but do need to be collected regularly –1x per week – even if the semen isn’t needed. If the labor is available,exercise doesn’t hurt but I’ve not seen any data suggesting it’s necessary.Boars should be kept in a body condition score of 3 (scale 1 to 5).